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Seasons, Months, Days in Hindu Calendar

Read about The Nakshatra System here

Do you know

As per Indian Ancient Astronomy, the astronomical details captured in a Hindu calendar is called Panchangam.

It has the utmost astronomical details possible captured in a very structured manner. An expert can only do that, but reading it is for common man as well, of course with a little practice and guidance. 

As per Hindu Calendar, it indicates 6 seasons (Rutu)
  1. Vasant (Spring)
  2. Grishma (Summer)
  3. Varsha(Rainy)
  4. Sharad (Early autumn)
  5. Hemantha (Later Autumn)
  6. Shishir (Winter)

The months in Hindu calendar are grouped, and the Gregorian calendar as well can be aligned.

Image Sourced From Internet
On this basis of these seasons, they have Months of the year grouped : 
Months of the Indian Civil CalendarDaysCorrelation of Indian/GregorianSeason
1. Caitra30*March 22*Vasantha
2. Vaisakha31April 21Vasantha
3. Jyaistha31May 22grIshma
4. Asadha31June 22grIshma 
5. Sravana31July 23varsha 
6. Bhadra31August 23varsha 
7. Asvina30September 23sharad
8. Kartika30October 23sharad
9. Margashirsha30November 22hemantha
10. Pausha30December 22hemantha
11. Magha30January 21Shishir
12. Phalguna30February 20Shishir
  • In a leap year, Caitra has 31 days and Caitra 1 coincides with March 21

As the moon transcends, the 29.5 days of the month in Hindu calendar goes by that. Each month consists of two lunar fortnights called Paksha’s and 15 days in each paksha.

Image Sourced From Internet
The Paksha starting after Poornima/Full moon is called Krishna Paksha. The Paksha starting after Amavasya/new moon is called Shukla Paksha
Day in fortnight/MonthKrishna PakshaDays in MonthShukla PakshaFamous Festivals through the year
1Paadya16PaadyaBali Paadyami, Yugaadi, Gudi Padwa
2Dwiteeya/Bidige17Dwiteeya/BidigeBhau- Beej/Baanu Bidige
3Thriteeya/Tadige18Thriteeya/TadigeAkshaya Triteeya
4Chaturthi19ChaturthiGanesh Chaturthi
5Panchami20PanchamiNaga Panchami, Basant Panchami 
6Shashti21ShashtiSubramanya Shashti /Skanda Shashti
7Saptami22SaptamiRath Saptami
8Ashtami23AshtamiKrishna Ashtami
9Navami24NavamiMaha Navami
10Dashami25DashamiDusshera, Vijaya Dashami
11Ekaadashi26EkaadashiPrathama Ekadashi
12Dwaadashi27DwaadashiUttana Dwaadashi/Tulsi Pooja
13Trayodashi28TrayodashiShani Trayodashi
14Chaturdashi29ChaturdashiNaraka Chaturdashi
15Amavasya30PoornimaBuddha Poornima, Bhima Amavasya
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